By Carmelo Mesa-Lago
The reform of social defense pensions and healthcare is a key factor for the fashionable international, and in lots of methods Latin the USA has acted as a social laboratory for the reform of those platforms. From the reforms that came about in Chile in 1981, so much pension and health and wellbeing care platforms within the sector have noticeable reform, and been totally or in part privatized. Many different international locations contemplating reform in their personal structures were motivated via the regulations carried out in Latin the US. but regardless of the significance and impact of those reforms, beforehand there has now not been an built-in and finished research of the adjustments and their results. This ebook is the results of 4 years of painstaking paintings, information assortment, box learn and foreign collaboration, and so fills the vacuum within the literature with a scientific comparability of pension and healthcare reforms within the 20 Latin American international locations. It identifies reform versions, and elaborates taxonomies to facilitate their knowing and comparability. a few key beneficial properties of the reforms to emerge are: labour strength and inhabitants insurance, fairness and cohesion, sufficiency and caliber of advantages, kingdom legislation, festival and measure of privatization, potency and administrative bills, social participation in administration, financing resources and long term sustainability. results of the reforms on social safeguard ideas are measured according to contemporary standardized data and different info. objectives or assumptions of the reforms are contrasted with genuine results, and the professionals and cons of personal as opposed to deepest provision assessed. specific coverage concepts are provided to right present difficulties and increase pension and healthcare structures. this is often the 1st e-book to comprehensively examine those influential reforms in Latin America's pension and health and wellbeing care structures, and as such can be of value to teachers and researchers attracted to social protection and welfare coverage, pensions, healthiness care, and public coverage; Social defense, pension, and overall healthiness care policy-makers; And social defense, pension, and well-being care specialists and practitioners.
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The reform of social safeguard pensions and healthcare is a key factor for the fashionable global, and in lots of methods Latin the USA has acted as a social laboratory for the reform of those structures. From the reforms that came about in Chile in 1981, such a lot pension and health and wellbeing care platforms within the sector have visible reform, and been absolutely or in part privatized.
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Additional resources for Reassembling Social Security: A Survey of Pensions and Health Care Reforms in Latin America Published in association with the Pan-American Health Organization
To those who are not covered by existing systems’ (employees in small enterprises, self-employed, migrants, and informal workers, particularly women), taking into account the diverse needs and contributory capacities of these groups. When they cannot be covered in an immediate and compulsory manner, it is necessary to introduce voluntary coverage, micro insurance, or social assistance (ILO 2001a: 2–4). 2. Enforcement in Latin America Before the social security reforms in Latin America, the principle of universal coverage ruled in a few countries.
The Conference of 2001 recommended to broaden the sources of funding for social security through, for example, tripartite ﬁnancing . . With the objective of sustainability, pension systems should be ﬁnancially viable in the long run. Therefore it is necessary that they conduct periodic actuarial projections and introduce the needed adjustments . . It is essential to make a full actuarial evaluation of any proposed reform before adopting new legislation (OIT 2001a: 4–5). 2. Enforcement in Latin America Before the reforms, the ﬁnancial sustainability of social security varied among Latin American countries.
As time elapsed, in a growing number of countries (particularly the pioneerhigh) the linkage between contribution and pension level became more tenuous, a result of generous entitlement conditions, the program maturity, population aging, and insufﬁciency of contributions. In the immense majority of nations with historical data, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living led to an increment of their real level until 1980, but high inﬂation in the 1980s reversed that tendency with a couple of exceptions (Mesa-Lago and Bertranou 1998).