Download Telecommunications traffic, tariffs, and costs : an by R.E. Farr PDF

By R.E. Farr

ISBN-10: 0863411452

ISBN-13: 9780863411458

Compatible if you desire to achieve a entire assessment of the world, this publication bargains counsel on making plans, ordering, dealing with and utilizing telecommunications amenities

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Extra info for Telecommunications traffic, tariffs, and costs : an introduction for managers

Example text

It was then the practice to use an associated telephone to set up calls, in the same way that data calls may be set up over the telephone network today. With the growth of telex traffic, however, the limitations imposed by the telephone network made it advantageous to establish a separate telex network with independent traffic routes and switching centres. 'Dial-up' access is provided, but inter-switching-centre signalling is not required. Instead, the signalling functions are performed by an exchange of messages: for example, each customer has a unique answer-back code which is automatically returned to a calling terminal to provide confirmation of identity before transmission commences.

4, are used to produce a succession of light pulses which represent the speech, signalling and synchronisation information for a group of circuits. On long routes the pulses have to be detected and regenerated at intervals, in much the same way as the electrical pulses transmitted over TDM systems. At the distant end the pulses of light have simply to be detected and used to reconstitute an electrical speech waveform. Optical transmission systems are based on the same 24-channel and 30-channel standards as TDM transmission systems.

Video conferencing requires two separate wideband circuits, one for each direction of video transmission, plus the facility to transmit speech. An alarm circuit requires video transmission in one direction only and sound is unlikely to be necessary. Digital transmission techniques are not used by broadcast television transmitters, but digitally encoded video signals offer advantages for transmission over telecommunications circuits. Elaborate digital coding techniques can be used to eliminate redundant information (for example, information from the picture background which does not change from scan to scan).

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