Download Digital Watermarking by Chandramouli Memon Rabbani PDF

By Chandramouli Memon Rabbani

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The α-particles were allowed to pass through a slit in a collimator and impinge on the emulsion. 5 cm of air covered part of the slit. 2 History and Discovery 21 consequence of Coulomb interactions with the atoms and which would result in the deflection of the α-particles from their original trajectories. As to be derived in Chap. 4, the probability of Coulomb scatter through the angle θ is proportional to 1 . Hence, the scattering will be predominantly forward directed. Along the sin4 ðθ2Þ extended pathway of air, the α-particles will undergo multiple scatter with a net zero scattering angle integrated over the entire path length at the position of the detector.

But even at this early time, elegant experiments were capable of extracting much detail of this phenomenon. Strutt’s measurements of the assumed exponential absorption of β-particles failed to find an absorption parameter μ that was independent of absorber thickness (Strutt 1900). This suggested a heterogeneity in the energies of the β-particles emitted from β-decay. Perhaps one of the simplest, yet most powerful, experiments to demonstrate the fact that the β-particles had a momentum spectrum was that of Becquerel as shown in Fig.

6 Internal Conversion and Coster–Kro¨nig Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Protons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Heavy Ions (Fission Fragments) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 π-Mesons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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