By Gordon S. Kino, Timothy R. Corle
This e-book presents a complete advent to the sector of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The ebook concentrates customarily on tools: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference Microscope (OIM). A entire dialogue of the idea and layout of the Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) is additionally given. The textual content discusses the sensible elements of creating a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the purposes of those microscopes to part imaging, organic imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A finished theoretical dialogue of the intensity and transverse answer is given with emphasis put on the sensible result of the theoretical calculations and the way those can be utilized to assist comprehend the operation of those microscopes. Key positive factors * offers a complete advent to the sector of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers * Explains many useful purposes of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such various fields as biology and semiconductor metrology * Discusses in theoretical phrases the starting place of the enhanced intensity and transverse answer of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis at the sensible result of the theoretical calculations * Considers the sensible points of establishing a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores the various layout tradeoffs made for microscopes utilized in a number of functions * Discusses the idea and layout of near-field optical microscopes * Explains part imaging within the scanning optical and interference microscopes
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Extra resources for Confocal scanning optical microscopy and related imaging systems
Since this amplitude response is identical to the intensity response of a standard microscope; it follows that the CTF of the CSOM is identical to the OTF of the standard microscope; that is, it has the same triangular shape as shown in Fig. 12. Thus, the spatial frequency response of the CSOM is the same as for the standard optical microscope and extends out to twice the frequency of a simple coherently illuminated lens. Early History The ideas which led to the development of the modern CSOM first began to take shape in the early 1950s.
Alternatively, the objective lens can be scanned. This technique is rarely used because it is difficult to maintain uniform illumination across the field of view. The majority of commercial CSOMs employ some form of beam scanning, which is typically much faster than sample scanning. In addition, because the scan is demagnified by the objective lens, the mechanical tolerances on beam scanning systems are less critical than those for sample scanning. The simplest form of beam scanning is to raster scan the pinhole, or replace the pinhole with a single-mode optical fiber and scan the fiber.
Furthermore, because of the long beam paths involved the microscope must be built massively to avoid vibration problems. The M i r a u C o r r e l a t i o n M i c r o s c o p e A related microscope, illustrated in Fig. 31, uses a Mirau interferometer consisting of a beamsplitter and a reference mirror positioned between the objective and the sample to generate the interference signals. 39 Because of the relatively short beam paths, the Mirau intefferometer is less sensitive to vibrations than the Linnik interferometer.