By Hiram Larew
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Extra info for Common Insect and Mite Galls of the Pacific Northwest (Studies in entomology)
1983) Post-fire succession of small mammal and bird communities. W. A. (eds) The Role of Fire in Northern Circumpolar Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, New York, Scope 18. pp. 155–180. G. V. (eds) (1996a) Fire in Ecosystems of Boreal Eurasia. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Forestry Sciences Vol. 48. G. V. (1996b) Fire in ecosystems of boreal Eurasia: ecological impacts and links to the global system. G. V. (eds) Fire in Ecosystems of Boreal Eurasia. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Forestry Sciences Vol.
Typically expressed in kW m−1 , the frontal fire intensity in boreal wildfires can range from 10 to more than 100 000 kW m−1 , with the higher values not uncommon (van Wagner 1983). 4). The FBP system predicts these behavioral characteristics as a function of the fuel types, fire weather indices, topography, and wind speed. It also predicts the rate of spread and fire intensity at the head, flanks, and back of the fire; fuel consumption; the classification of the fire; and the resulting area and shape (the length to breadth ratio of the ellipse) (Hirsch 1996).
In Fennoscandia, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is the dominant tree species on drier sites (Scott 1995), with an understory of dwarf shrubs such as heather (Calluna vulgaris) and crowberry (Empetrum hermaphroditum), as well as blueberries and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), and the forest floor is covered by lichens of the genus Cladonia and less often Stereocaulon (Scott 1995, Esseen et al. 1997). On fertile sites, Scots pine can grow up to 30 m tall and up to 1 m in diameter (Hytteborn et al.