Download Clinical MR Imaging by Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas PDF

By Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas Allkemper (auth.), Prof. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul M. Parizel, Prof. James F. M. Meaney, Dr. Falko A. Stichnoth (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3540745017

ISBN-13: 9783540745013

ISBN-10: 3540745041

ISBN-13: 9783540745044

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has develop into the prime cross-sectional imaging approach in scientific perform. non-stop technical advancements have considerably broadened the scope of purposes. at the present, MR imaging is not just crucial diagnostic process in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal radiology, yet has additionally turn into a useful diagnostic instrument for stomach, pelvic, cardiac, breast and vascular imaging. This e-book bargains sensible directions for acting effective and competitively priced MRI examinations in day-by-day perform. The underlying inspiration is that, by means of adopting a realistic protocol-based process, the work-flow in a MRI unit could be streamlined and optimized.

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Sample text

As a safety precaution, vendors perform mathematical simulations using various human models to verify compliance with the safety guidelines. The various limits are checked prior to execution of the sequence. The user will have guided choices to start the measurement. All vendors must have at least a dual path to verify that the SAR limits are not exceeded. The first path consists of a direct measurement. The energy lost within the system is estimated during the adjustment. Based on these values, the energy absorbed by the patient is approximated.

Values are averaged over a 6-min time frame. For a period of 10 s, the averaged SAR is permitted to exceed up to three times the level of the current mode. These levels are valid for a bore temperature of up to 77°F. 4°F. The software on the MR system will calculate and compare all possible above-mentioned limits for the selected mode and will indicate the most critical value. If the critical value exceeds the level of the selected mode, suggestions are made to the operator regarding which scan parameters to change (and to what value) in order to stay within the guidelines.

Reduce the refocusing flip angle. That will decrease the B1 field amplitude. That factor is contributing with a power of two to the SAR value. • Reduce the echo train length (ETL). That will lead to fewer RF pulses for the same TR, spreading the delivered energy over a longer time window (to the expense of increased measurement time). • Use low SAR pulses. The B1 amplitude will dictate the speed of flipping. A short RF pulse with large B1 field amplitude will have the same flipping or refocusing effect as a long RF pulse with smaller B1 field amplitude.

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