By Kenneth W Ford
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5 papers (1905-8) investigating dynamics of Brownian movement and evolving user-friendly thought. Notes by means of R. Furth. 5 early papers evolve idea that gained Einstein a Nobel Prize. stream of Small debris Suspended in a desk bound Liquid Demanded by way of the Molecular-Kinetic concept of warmth, at the thought of the Brownian flow, a brand new selection of Molecular Dimensions, Theoretical Observations at the Brownian movement, and uncomplicated idea of the Brownian movement.
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Additional resources for Classical and Modern Physics
Negative temperature is unreachaЫe on the absolute scale because an ideal gas cannot display negative pressure, and negative volume has Sec. 4 Two laws of temperature по physical meaniпg. Both the left and right sides of Equatioп 1 3. 0 1 3 х 1 0 5 N/m 2 ) ? Equatioп 1 3. 4 Jiters. • • EXAMPLE 2 : Helium gas foJ\ows the ideal-gas ]aw quite closely. Consider 1 l iter of helium iпitially at а pressure of 1 0 5 N/m 2 (about 1 atm) апd а tem perature of 300 К (пеаr room temperature). Suppose that it is cooJed to 1 О К at constant atmospheric pressure.
Herman n von Helmholtz was a nother early con t ributor to the idea of а u n i versa l l a w of energy conservation. Two accounts of t he s u bjecr that he prepa red for gencra l a ud ic nccs i n 1 854 a n d 1 862 ca n Ье fou n d in h i s Popular Sciemific Lectures (New York : Dovcr puЬl ica t ions, 1 962). t А ге these magn itudes reasonaЫe ? About how many gal lons of watcr a rc co n t a i ncd i n 1 00 kg? Roughly how many pou n ds wcigh 3 0 st i rring hand 1 40 m ? N ? A bout how long shou ld i t t a k c 1 0 movc а 563 С/1.
5, approximately 1 cal of heat is required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water Ьу 1 К . * The specific heat of water is, therefore, � = 1 kcal t ( 1 3. 39) ер (water) ;;; 1 gm К kg К . Specific heat of water, originally а standard Compared with most materials at ordinary temperature, water has а high specific heat. 2 that the specific heats of other common materials are all less than 1 kcal/kg К . ) For water, only а small fraction of the internal energy is in the form of translational kinetic energy of the molecules.