By Constantin Von Economo
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Additional resources for Cellular Structure of the Human Cerebral Cortex
On the other hand, dendrites issued from the base of the soma are oriented laterally and downwards, and terminate within the immediate cortical vicinity at a short distance from the soma. The axon is also issued from the base of the soma, and usually invades Introduction the white matter of the gyrus, after giving off a few horizontal collaterals. Pyramidal cells usually contain well-developed Nissl bodies, and a relatively large and vesicular nucleus with a pronounced nucleolus. Their size may vary substantially; that is why we classify them according to their height-to-width (H/W) ratio (Schlankheit or cell ‘slenderness’) as small pyramidal cells (size 12/10 m), medium-sized pyramidal cells (about 25/15 m), and large pyramidal cells (about 30– 45/15–20 m).
The works of Dotto and Pusateri Introduction We can now consider the individual areas of the cortex. To facilitate orientation, we divide the cerebral hemispheres into seven lobes (cf. tables 1 and 2). Their cytoarchitectonic boundaries do not necessarily coincide with their gross anatomical (macroscopic) boundaries. (1) The frontal lobe reaches from the floor of the central sulcus of Rolando to the frontal pole, over and around it to the substantia perforata on the ventral (inferior) hemispheric aspect, and to the limbic gyrus on the median aspect.
Immediately underneath it, layer V consists of large and medium-sized pyramidal cells, arranged somewhat irregularly. Giant Cells of Betz. Beneath the cells just described, especially in caudal sections of area FA, in the deeper zone of layer V one finds solitary examples or small groups of 3–4 elements, the colossal, well-known giant cells of Betz (Betzsche Riesenzellen), readily discernible in the microphotographs of figures 11 and 12 as the largest cells of the entire cerebral cortex. They are most numerous and largest at the anterior segment of the paracentral lobule and the dorsal tier of the precentral gyrus closest to the superomedial hemispheric edge.