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Additional info for CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide
10, they are actually transmitted and interpreted in binary. qxd 10/9/08 8:33 AM Page 17 Chapter 1: Perspectives on Voice Before Convergence 17 Corporations use digital voice connections to the PSTN as T1 circuits in the United States, Canada, and Japan. A T1 circuit is built from 24 separate 64-kbps channels known as a digital signal 0 (DS0). Each one of these channels is able to support a single voice call. Corporations in areas outside the United States, Canada, and Japan use E1 circuits, which allow you to use up to 30 DS0s for voice calls.
As technology has advanced, the line between key systems and PBXs has begun to blur; however, key systems typically support fewer features and have a “shared line” feel. For example, you might see a key system installed in a small insurance office where users all have four lines assigned to their phone. If Joe were to use line 1, the line would appear busy for all users at the insurance office. Note Although key systems often have a shared-line feature set, many key systems have numerous features that allow them to operate just like a PBX system, but with fewer ports.
So, each T1 frame is 193 bits in length. Here’s the math: Each DS0 frame = 8 bits T1 sends 24 DS0 frames at once (8 bits × 24 frames) = 192 bits Each T1 frame has a framing bit (1 bit + 192 bits) = 193 bits How this T1 framing bit is used is dependent on the framing standard used. Digital T1 lines send 8000 of these 193-bit frames every second (because Dr. Nyquist’s voice model requires 8000 samples to be sent each second to accurately reconstruct voice). 544 Mbps. Super Frame (SF) sends groups of 12 T1 frames at a time.