Download Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of by Curtis D. Klaassen PDF

By Curtis D. Klaassen

ISBN-10: 0071124535

ISBN-13: 9780071124539

ISBN-10: 0071347216

ISBN-13: 9780071347211

Normal because the most advantageous within the box, Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology is now on hand in a brand new 6th version that equips you with an unsurpassed therapy of contemporary toxicology, together with the rules, techniques, mechanisms, and modes of inspiration which are the basis of the self-discipline. complete and fully modern, the recent variation of Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology continues to be your most sensible resource for the most recent breakthroughs during this fast-changing box. * the hot version of this top-rated within the box is extra helpful than ever * specific insurance of the advances in molecular biology and pharmacogenetics * increased assurance of chance evaluate * insurance of on-line references, as well as conventional print magazine and assessment articles * New bankruptcy outlines * New 2-color layout

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Additional resources for Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons Sixth Edition

Example text

In addition to these modes of interaction, the response of the organism to combinations of toxicants may be increased or decreased because of toxicologic responses at the site of action. The effects of two chemicals given simultaneously produce a response that may simply be additive of their individual responses or may be greater or less than that expected by addition of their individual responses. The study of these interactions often leads to a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity of the chemicals involved.

Similarly, an index of comparative toxicity is obtained by the ratio of doses of two different materials to produce an identical response or the ratio of doses of the same material necessary to yield different toxic effects. The most commonly used index of effect, whether beneficial or toxic, is the median dose—that is, the dose required to result in a response in 50 percent of a population (or to produce 50 percent of a maximal response). The therapeutic index of a drug is an approximate statement about the relative safety of a drug expressed as the ratio of the lethal or toxic dose to the therapeutic dose: TI ϭ LD50/ED50 From Fig.

Interestingly, rats do possess the gene for a form of glutathione S-transferase with high catalytic activity toward aflatoxin epoxide (rGSTA5-5) that is inducible by certain dietary antioxidants and drugs. Thus, dietary treatment can dramatically change the sensitivity of a species to a carcinogen. Other examples in which large species differences in response to carcinogens have been observed include the development of renal tumors from 2,3,5-trimethylpentane and d-limonene in male rats (Lehman-McKeeman and Caudill, 1992), the production of liver tumors from “peroxisomal proliferators” such as the antilipidemic drug clofibrate and the common solvent trichloroethylene (Roberts, 1999), and the induction of nasal carcinomas in rats after inhalation exposure to formaldehyde (Monticello and Morgan, 1997).

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