Download Business Economics by Roger Perman, John Scouller PDF

By Roger Perman, John Scouller

ISBN-10: 0198775253

ISBN-13: 9780198775256

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In fact, this results in such licences themselves becoming valuable commodities which trade for large sums of money in cities such as New York. The same effect can be expected in any market where licensing arrangements can operate to restrict new entry, an example being the medical profession in many countries. Perfect competition, then, is an analytical model developed in order to gain some insight into the competitive process and to provide a benchmark for understanding the implications of different market structures.

In that figure, the firm portrayed is earning supernormal profits. But given the characteristics of perfectly competitive markets, the outcome described there can only be an ephemeral state. It cannot persist for two reasons: existing firms may choose to alter the scale at which they operate. As firms move along their long-run average cost curves in search of the optimal scale of production so the output of the representative firm will alter; 33 34 new firms may decide to enter the industry, or existing firms may leave.

However, the taxi business in most big cities is regulated by local authorities keen to set minimum standards and thus requiring taxi owners to be properly qualified and licensed. Often the number of licences issued is kept below the desirable level and this acts as a barrier to the entry of new firms into the industry and so tends to raise the profits of those who have an operating licence. In fact, this results in such licences themselves becoming valuable commodities which trade for large sums of money in cities such as New York.

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