By Bernhard Graimann, Brendan Z. Allison, Gert Pfurtscheller
A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes an immediate output channel among the human mind and exterior units. BCIs infer person cause through direct measures of mind task and therefore allow verbal exchange and regulate with no circulation. This booklet, authored through specialists within the box, presents an available advent to the neurophysiological and signal-processing history required for BCI, provides cutting-edge non-invasive and invasive techniques, supplies an summary of present and software program suggestions, and stories the main attention-grabbing in addition to new, rising BCI purposes. The ebook is meant not just for college kids and younger researchers, but additionally for novices and different readers from varied backgrounds prepared to profit approximately this very important medical endeavour.
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Additional resources for Brain-Computer Interfaces: Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction
Leeb, D. R. Müller-Putz, R. Scherer, M. Slater, and G. Pfurtscheller, SelfPaced (Asynchronous) BCI control of a wheelchair in virtual environments: A case study with a Tetraplegic. Comput Intell Neurosci, 79642, (2007). 37. G. Pfurtscheller, C. R. Müller, B. Obermaier, G. Krausz, A. Schlögl, R. Scherer, B. Graimann, C. Keinrath, D. Skliris, M. Wörtz, G. Supp, and C. Schrank, Graz-BCI: state of the art and clinical applications. , 177–180, (2003). 38. R. Millán, F. Renkens, J. Mouriño, and W. , 1026–1033, (2004).
Only Brain Signals for Brain–Computer Interfaces 31 electric field recording (and possibly fNIR ) is likely to be of significant practical value for clinical applications in the near future. Electric field recordings measure changes in membrane potentials of CNS synapses, neurons, and axons as they receive and transmit information. Neurons receive and integrate synaptic inputs and then transmit the results down their axons in the form of action potentials. Synaptic potentials and action potentials reflect changes in the flow of ions across the neuronal membranes.
Mason, Evaluation criteria for BCI research, In: Toward brain-computer interfacing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 342, 327, (2007). 25. J. A. R. Wolpaw, Brain-computer interface (BCI) operation: optimizing information transfer rates. , 237–251, (2003). 26. B. Blankertz, G. Dornhege, M. Krauledat, K. Müller, and G. Curio, The non-invasive Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: fast acquisition of effective performance in untrained subjects. , 539–550, (2007). 27. O. Friman, I. Volosyak, and A. Gräser, Multiple channel detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials for brain-computer interfaces.