By Gene E. Likens (auth.)
The aim of this 3rd version is to replace long term info offered in past variations and to generate new syntheses and conclusions in regards to the biogeochemistry of the Hubbard Brook Valley in keeping with those longer-term facts. there were many adjustments, revelations, and interesting new insights generated from the longer info documents. for instance, the impression of acid rain peaked through the interval of the HBES and is now declining. The longer-term facts additionally posed demanding situations in that very marked alterations in fluxes happened in a few elements, akin to hydrogen ion and sulfate deposition, calcium and nitrate export in movement water and biomass accumulation, throughout the virtually 50 years of checklist. hence, offering “mean” or “average” stipulations for plenty of elements for one of these lengthy interval, whilst switch was once so widespread, don't make experience. sometimes, pentads or a long time of time are in comparison to express those alterations in a extra smoothed and rational manner for this lengthy interval. in certain cases, a unmarried interval, frequently in periods of swift swap, corresponding to acidification, is used to demonstrate the most point(s). And, for a few parts a distinct mass stability procedure, permitting the calculation of the internet environment Flux (NEF), is proven on an annual foundation during the study.
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Extra resources for Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem
The forest in W6 had a basal area of about 23 m2/ha in 1965 (Bormann et al. 1970) and 28 m2/ha in 2007 (Siccama et al. 2007). Total (above- and belowground) live-tree biomass (~245 mg/ha for trees ≥10 cm dbh) throughout the Hubbard Brook Valley did not change significantly between 1995 and 2005 (van Doorn et al. 2011). 89 Mg/ha-year during 1987–1992 (Likens et al. 1994) and recently has declined even further (Lindenmayer and Likens 2010, p. 123). ) and red maple (Acer rubrum), are common in the experimental watersheds; white pine (Pinus strobus) is rare except in the valley floor, and red oak (Quercus rubra), basswood (Tilia americana), and elm (Ulmus americana) are absent from the HBEF.
2005). 5 mol Cl/ha-year; Lovett et al. 2005; Chap. 5). Therefore, if losses by deep seepage were negligible, then inputs in wet and dry deposition should be observed quantitatively in the streamwater outputs from the ecosystem. In fact, annual mass balances, particularly since 1982 show small net ecosystem losses, and analyses do not suggest significant “hidden” losses (see Chap. 4 and 6). Finally, if there were significant inputs or outputs of groundwater, then streamwater chemistry should change during low-flow periods.
Precipitation falling on the watersheds of the HBEF contains an average total organic carbon concentration of about 1 mg/L of which 84 % is dissolved (Likens et al. 1983). Only a small fraction of this organic matter is dissociated organic acids (Likens et al. 1976, 1983; Galloway et al.