By Trevor J. Franklin, George Alan Snow
The topic is one in every of significant curiosity in simple microbiology and infectious illnesses and the publication is a identified vintage.
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Extra info for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Antimicrobial Drug Action
Enzymic removal of the side chain gives 7 -aminocephalosporanic acid which can be chemically acylated to give new derivatives. A second change in the molecule can also be made by a chemical modification of the acetoxy group of cephalosporin C. The first successful semi-synthetic cephalosporin was cephaloridine. 14. Most are only effective when given by injection, but cephalexin and cefixime can be given by mouth. Cefuroxime is unaffected by many of the common [3-lactamases and can be used against bacterial strains which are resistant to other [3-lactam antibiotics; it can be useful in infections due to Neisseria or Haemophilus.
Since the linear polymers themselves are very large, it is likely that the whole of the peptidoglycan in a Gram-positive bacterium is made up of units covalently bound together. This gigantic bag-shaped molecule has been called a 'sacculus'. There is also a mechanism for constantly breaking it down and re-forming it to allow for cell growth and division. Peptidoglycan hydro lases which hydrolyse the polysaccharide chains of peptidoglycan and others attacking the peptide crosslinks exert this essential catabolic activity during cell growth.
In the Gram-positive mycobacteria the peptidoglycan carries quite a different polymeric attachment. Arabinogalactan is attached to the 6-position of some of the N-glycolylmuramic acid residues of the glycan chain through a phosphate ester group. Mycolic acids (complex, very long-chain fatty acids) are attached by ester links to the C-5 position of arabinose residues of the arabinogalactan. The mycobacterial cell wall thus has a high lipid content. 9). The lipoprotein consists of a polypeptide chain of 58 amino acid units of known sequence with lysine at the C-terminus and cysteine at the N-terminus.