By Robin W. Bates
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Extra resources for Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland
The first step is projecting energy-using activity levels in the economy (the Akj). Projecting these activities requires the analyst to take a view on how the entire structure of the Polish economy will evolve. In principle, this could be done with a dynamic general equilibrium model that included investment behavior, trade linkages, and macroeconomic effects. However, such a framework is daunting even for an advanced industrial economy. It is almost inconceivable for a transitional economy. Thus, we have been forced to rely upon more heuristic projections of the composition of Polish economic activity, prepared by a variety of sectoral experts consulted by members of our research team from the Polish Academy.
For cleanup of existing e Page 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Like other Central European countries, Poland faces the twin challenges of improving environmental quality while also promoting economic development. Pollution, especially in the air, poses serious threats to human health and other resources in many parts of the country, though the precise extent of the hazards remains controversial. At the same time, excessive expenditure on pollution mitigation must be avoided, given a scarcity of capital needed for raising living standards.
915 (Bates and Moore 1992). Using a 2See in particular Krupnick, Harrison, Nickell, and Toman (1993). 2). Of particular significance is the fact that Poland's total primary energy requirement per US$ of GDP is about twice as much as the average for Western Europe (International Energy Agency 1990, p. 11). 2. Although the above figures are admittedly crude indicators of energy intensity, there seems to be little doubt that there has been an underlying structural element to Poland's air pollution problem.