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Extra resources for Advanced techniques in image-guided brain and spine surgery
The scaling errors in the three dimensions are different from each other). There are two major approaches for correcting scaling error in MR images. 22–24 It is important to use the identical scanning parameters for the patient and phantom images. This method is straightforward to implement, but it requires custom software and an extra phantom scan for each patient, and thus is not widely performed. 22 Typically, image volumes of the head are assumed to differ only by the position and orientation of the head in the scanner when the images were acquired, and thus algorithms that register head images frequently determine a six degree-of-freedom (DOF) rigidbody transformation that consists of three rotation and three translation parameters.
In this case, if substantial geometrical distortion is detected, the user will not be able to correct the distortion but will at least know that the MR image data cannot be fully trusted and will have an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the distortion. pgsI 20 2/28/02 10:42 AM Page 20 Principles and Technology A B C D FIGURE 2–5. Fiducial markers. (A). Skin-affixed markers (multimodality radiographic markers, IZI Medical Products, Baltimore, MD) on a patient. (B–D). 13 The image markers are constructed from hollow plastic cylinders that are filled with an aqueous solution of iothalamate meglumine and gadopentetate dimeglumine and sealed (B, left; C).
Figure 2–4 shows an example where the basilar artery is misregistered by approximately 3 mm because of geometrical distortion in the MR image. The cause of the registration error is probably object-induced geometrical distortion of both the fiducial points used to register the images and the position of the basilar artery. Since the magnitude of the distortion is inversely proportional to the frequencyencoding gradient strength, increasing the strength of the gradient will reduce the spatial error.